1. The evidence is accumulating to suggest that glycine, the simplest amino acid, is conditionally essential in man. Benzoic acid, by conjugation with glycine to form hippuric acid, is known to deplete the free glycine pool of the body. Glycine is one substrate for the enzyme glutathione synthase (EC 188.8.131.52) and in the inborn error of metabolism in which glutathione synthase function is defective, increased quantities of 5-oxoproline are excreted in the urine. 2. An oral dose of 4-10 g sodium benzoate was given to six normal adults to deplete the metabolic pool of glycine, and the urinary excretion of 5-oxoproline was followed for 6 h. In five of the six, a significant increase in the urinary 5-oxoproline was seen within 3 h. 3. These findings show that 5-oxoprolinuria can result from limited glycine availability, and may provide a useful test for assessing glycine sufficiency in a range of physiological and pathological states.