International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group: Consensus guidelines on the diagnosis and management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2023 Mar:166:111469. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2023.111469. Epub 2023 Feb 2.


Introduction: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection commonly manifests as subacute or chronic cervicofacial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. The optimal management of this pathology remains controversial.

Objectives: This international consensus guideline aims to understand the practice patterns for NTM cervicofacial lymphadenitis and to address the primary diagnostic and management challenges.

Methods: A modified three-iterative Delphi method was used to establish expert recommendations on the diagnostic considerations, expectant or medical management, and operative considerations. The recommendations herein are derived from current expert consensus and critical review of the literature.

Setting: Multinational, multi-institutional, tertiary pediatric hospitals.

Results: Consensus recommendations include diagnostic work-up, goals of treatment and management options including surgery, prolonged antibiotic therapy and observation.

Conclusion: The recommendations formulated in this International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with NTM lymphadenitis are aimed at improving patient care and promoting future hypothesis generation.

Keywords: Atypical mycobacteria; Cervical lymphadenitis; Consensus recommendations; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Lymph Node Excision
  • Lymphadenitis* / microbiology
  • Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous* / diagnosis
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
  • Otolaryngology*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents