Pro- vs. Anti-Inflammatory Features of Monocyte Subsets in Glioma Patients

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jan 18;24(3):1879. doi: 10.3390/ijms24031879.


Monocytes constitute a heterogenous group of antigen-presenting cells that can be subdivided based on CD14, CD16 and SLAN expression. This division reflects the functional diversity of cells that may play different roles in a variety of pathologies including gliomas. In the current study, the three monocyte subpopulations: classical (CD14+ CD16+ SLAN-), intermediate (CD14dim CD16+ SLAN-) and non-classical (CD14low/- CD16+ SLAN+) in glioma patients' peripheral blood were analysed with flow cytometry. The immune checkpoint molecule (PD-1, PD-L1, SIRPalpha, TIM-3) expression along with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-12, TGF-beta, IL-10) were assessed. The significant overproduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines by intermediate monocytes was observed. Additionally, SLAN-positive cells overexpressed IL-12 and TNF when compared to the other two groups of monocytes. In conclusion, these results show the presence of different profiles of glioma patient monocytes depending on CD14, CD16 and SLAN expression. The bifold function of monocyte subpopulations might be an additional obstacle to the effectiveness of possible immunotherapies.

Keywords: SLAN; cytokines; glioblastoma; glioma; immune checkpoints; monocytes.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Glioma* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-12 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism
  • Monocytes* / metabolism
  • Receptors, IgG / metabolism


  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, IgG
  • Cytokines
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Interleukin-12