Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Pathogenetic Mechanisms

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Feb 2;24(3):2895. doi: 10.3390/ijms24032895.


Gastric cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the main risk factors for this type of neoplasia. Carcinogenetic mechanisms associated with H. pylori are based, on the one hand, on the onset of chronic inflammation and, on the other hand, on bacterial-specific virulence factors that can damage the DNA of gastric epithelial cells and promote genomic instability. Here, we review and discuss the major pathogenetic mechanisms by which H. pylori infection contributes to the onset and development of gastric cancer.

Keywords: CagA; MMR; ROS; cytokines; genomic instability; inflammation; virulence factors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Bacterial / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • Helicobacter Infections* / genetics
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / pathology


  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Proteins

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.