The study on Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the effects of a pharmacologically relevant dose 0.3 mg/kg body weight of chromium supplementation (commonly used picolinate or novel form as nanoparticles) and switching away from obesogenic dietary habits on the parameters of lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in liver and plasma. Favorable effects related to dietary changes from the obesogenic diet were considerably enhanced when the diet was supplemented with chromium nanoparticles. This combination exerted the strongest fat content and cholesterol reduction in the liver. Moreover, in this group, a favorable antioxidative effect was observed through GSH/GSSG elevation in the liver as well as ALT activity reduction in the plasma and IL-6 levels in the liver. The molecular mechanisms associated with regulating lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation might be related to lower expression of HIF-1α, COX-2, and LOX-1 and upregulation of PPARα in the liver. Supplementation with chromium nanoparticles without changes in the obesogenic diet also favorably affected lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the liver; however, the examined effects were moderate. In conclusion, the favorable effects of switching from an obesogenic to a balanced diet on hepatic lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation induced by an obesogenic diet might be enhanced by supplementation with chromium nanoparticles.
Keywords: fatty liver diseases; inflammation; nanoparticles; obesity; oxidative stress; rats.