The prospect of surrogate mothering: clinical concerns

Can J Psychiatry. 1987 Oct;32(7):545-50. doi: 10.1177/070674378703200708.


There have been, in the last decade, approximately 500 surrogate births in the United States and the demand is increasing. The average cost is $25,000 and as there is no regulatory legislation in place, each arrangement is covered by a private legal contract. There is little reliable data regarding any member of the "incubating family", or on the adopting couple. This paper is an attempt to point out the potential hazards, based on a theoretical and clinical appreciation of child and adult biopsychosocial processes. The authors advocate careful longitudinal study of all children and adults involved in this complex reproductive alternative.

MeSH terms

  • Adoption
  • Child Rearing
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insemination, Artificial / psychology*
  • Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous / psychology*
  • Marriage
  • Maternal-Fetal Relations
  • Mothers / psychology*
  • Parent-Child Relations
  • Personality Development*
  • Pregnancy
  • Sibling Relations
  • Siblings
  • Spermatozoa
  • Surrogate Mothers / psychology*