We have identified neurofascin, a novel chick cell-surface glycoprotein involved in neurite-neurite interactions. Neurofascin is defined by its reactivity with monoclonal antibody (MAb) F6, which detects two polypeptides (160 and 185 kd) in immunotransfers of brain plasma membrane proteins. Immunoaffinity chromatography using immobilized MAb F6 yields major molecular mass bands at 185, 160, 135-110, and 92 kd. Fingerprint analyses show that these polypeptides are related. Neurofascin is expressed primarily in fiber-rich areas of embryonic cerebellum, spinal cord, and retina. Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies to neurofascin interfere with the outgrowth of retinal and sympathetic axons in two different in vitro bioassays. Neurofascin is immunologically distinct from other known neurite-associated surface glycoproteins.