How I Do It: Penthrox in Urology

Can J Urol. 2023 Feb;30(1):11448-11452.


Penthrox is a portable handheld inhaler that delivers a low dose of methoxyflurane - an anesthetic with analgesic effects, rapid onset of action, and a favorable side-effect profile. It has been widely used for acute pain management in Australia for the past 40 years. Currently, it is approved for use in over 55 countries, including Canada. Prospective randomized studies highlight Penthrox analgesic effectiveness and safety profile for emergency, prehospital and outpatient settings. In addition, the use of multimodal analgesia, specifically Penthrox, can play an important role in the analgesic management of urological procedures, such as prostatic biopsies and office-based minimally invasive surgical therapies. Herein readers will familiarize themselves with Penthrox, significant studies, and technique used for outpatient urological procedures.

Keywords: MIST; Penthrox; analgesia; methoxyflurane; urology.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Methoxyflurane / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Urology*


  • Methoxyflurane
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Analgesics