Helminth egg derivatives as proregenerative immunotherapies

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Feb 21;120(8):e2211703120. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2211703120. Epub 2023 Feb 13.


The immune system is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of tissue repair. We developed a regenerative immunotherapy from the helminth Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) to stimulate production of interleukin (IL)-4 and other type 2-associated cytokines without negative infection-related sequelae. The regenerative SEA (rSEA) applied to a murine muscle injury induced accumulation of IL-4-expressing T helper cells, eosinophils, and regulatory T cells and decreased expression of IL-17A in gamma delta (γδ) T cells, resulting in improved repair and decreased fibrosis. Encapsulation and controlled release of rSEA in a hydrogel further enhanced type 2 immunity and larger volumes of tissue repair. The broad regenerative capacity of rSEA was validated in articular joint and corneal injury models. These results introduce a regenerative immunotherapy approach using natural helminth derivatives.

Keywords: biomaterials; helminth; immune response; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Helminth
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Immunotherapy
  • Mice
  • Schistosoma mansoni
  • Schistosomiasis mansoni* / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer


  • Cytokines
  • Antigens, Helminth