Value of new advanced hematological parameters in early prediction of severity of COVID-19

Int J Lab Hematol. 2023 Jun;45(3):282-288. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.14035. Epub 2023 Feb 13.


Introduction: COVID-19 usually presents with upper respiratory tract infection in varying severity which can lead to sepsis. Early prediction of sepsis may reduce mortality by timely interventions. The intended purpose of this study was to determine whether the advanced parameters like the extended inflammation parameters (EIPs) can predict prognosis and early progression to sepsis as a sequel of COVID-19 infection and can be used as a screening profile. Also, to evaluate the Intensive Care Infection Score (ICIS) and the COVID-19 prognostic score and validate the scores for our population.

Methods: Prospective observational study of 50 reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) proven admitted COVID-19 patients. The data assessed included complete blood counts (CBC) with EIP measurements, from Day 1 of admission to Day 10. The following groups were studied: noncritical (NC) and critical illness (CI) in COVID-19 positive cases, COVID negative sepsis and nonsepsis cases, and healthy volunteers for reference range.

Results: The parameters that showed statistically significant higher mean in CI group compared to the NC group are reactive lymphocyte number and percentage (RE-LYMPH#, RE-LYMPH%), antibody synthesizing lymphocyte number and percentage (AS-LYMPH#, AS-LYMPH%), Reactive monocyte count and percentage (RE-MONO#, RE-MONO%/M), ICIS, COVID-19 prognostic score (p-value <0.05). The AUC confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of all these parameters. From the multivariate logistic regression, the significant risk factor was RE-LYMPH# with cut-off >0.10 (p value: 0.011).

Conclusion: The new EIP parameters, RE-MONO#, RE-MONO%/M, ICIS score and COVID-19 prognostic score are useful for early prediction of critical illness. AS-LYMPH is the most useful predictor of critical illness on multivariate analysis. RE-MONO# and RE-MONO%/M parameter are useful in distinguishing critical and noncritical non-COVID and COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: COVID; COVID score; EIP; ICIS.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / diagnosis
  • Critical Illness
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • ROC Curve
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sepsis*