The antibody response and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to commercially available trivalent influenza vaccine in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus was compared with response and reaction in 28 healthy volunteers. A correction for prevaccination titres was made. No differences were found between diabetic patients and control subjects with respect to antibody response to the three vaccine strains as measured by the difference between geometric mean titres of post- and prevaccination sera. In Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients the incidence of non-responders to two vaccine components was significantly increased (p less than 0.05). The delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to influenza antigen was significantly decreased in patients with high concentrations of glycosylated haemoglobin (p less than 0.01). These findings suggest a role for impaired immune response in the increased influenza morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Implications for therapy and vaccination strategy are discussed.