Trends and In-Hospital Mortality for Perioperative Myocardial Infarction After the Introduction of a Diagnostic Code for Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in the United States Between 2016 and 2018

Anesth Analg. 2024 Feb 1;138(2):420-429. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006404. Epub 2023 Feb 16.


Background: The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction has been declining; however, previous studies have only described type 1 myocardial infarctions. Here, we evaluate the overall frequency of myocardial infarction with the addition of an International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10-CM) code for type 2 myocardial infarction and the independent association with in-hospital mortality.

Methods: A longitudinal cohort study spanning the introduction of the ICD-10-CM diagnostic code for type 2 myocardial infarction using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2016 to 2018. Hospital discharges that included a primary surgical procedure code for intrathoracic, intraabdominal, or suprainguinal vascular surgery were included. Type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarctions were identified using ICD-10-CM codes. We used segmented logistic regression to estimate change in frequency of myocardial infarctions and multivariable logistic regression to determine the association with in-hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 360,264 unweighted discharges were included, representing 1,801,239 weighted discharges, with median age 59 and 56% female. The overall incidence of myocardial infarction was 0.76% (13,605/1,801,239). Before the introduction of type 2 myocardial infarction code, there was a small baseline decrease in the monthly frequency of perioperative myocardial infarctions (odds ratio [OR], 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.984-1.000; P = .042), but no change in the trend after the introduction of the diagnostic code (OR, 0.998; 95% CI, 0.991-1.005; P = .50). In 2018, where there was an entire year where type 2 myocardial infarction was officially a diagnosis, the distribution of myocardial infarction type 1 was 8.8% (405/4580) ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 45.6% (2090/4580) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 45.5% (2085/4580) type 2 myocardial infarction. STEMI and NSTEMI were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (OR, 8.96; 95% CI, 6.20-12.96; P < .001 and OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.34-1.89; P < .001). A diagnosis of type 2 myocardial infarction was not associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.81-1.53; P = .50) when accounting for surgical procedure, medical comorbidities, patient demographics, and hospital characteristics.

Conclusions: The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarctions did not increase after the introduction of a new diagnostic code for type 2 myocardial infarctions. A diagnosis of type 2 myocardial infarction was not associated with increased in-patient mortality; however, few patients received invasive management that may have confirmed the diagnosis. Further research is needed to identify what type of intervention, if any, may improve outcomes in this patient population.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction* / etiology
  • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology