Typhoid Fever Surveillance, Incidence Estimates, and Progress Toward Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction - Worldwide, 2018-2022

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 Feb 17;72(7):171-176. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7207a2.


Typhoid fever, an acute febrile illness caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is endemic in many low- and middle-income countries (1). In 2015, an estimated 11-21 million typhoid fever cases and 148,000-161,000 associated deaths occurred worldwide (2). Effective prevention strategies include improved access to and use of infrastructure supporting safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); health education; and vaccination (1). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends programmatic use of typhoid conjugate vaccines for typhoid fever control and prioritization of vaccine introduction in countries with the highest typhoid fever incidence or high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhi (1). This report describes typhoid fever surveillance, incidence estimates, and the status of typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction during 2018-2022. Because routine surveillance for typhoid fever has low sensitivity, population-based studies have guided estimates of case counts and incidence in 10 countries since 2016 (3-6). In 2019, an updated modeling study estimated that 9.2 million (95% CI = 5.9-14.1) typhoid fever cases and 110,000 (95% CI = 53,000-191,000) deaths occurred worldwide, with the highest estimated incidence in the WHO South-East Asian (306 cases per 100,000 persons), Eastern Mediterranean (187), and African (111) regions (7). Since 2018, five countries (Liberia, Nepal, Pakistan, Samoa [based on self-assessment], and Zimbabwe) with estimated high typhoid fever incidence (≥100 cases per 100,000 population per year) (8), high antimicrobial resistance prevalence, or recent outbreaks introduced typhoid conjugate vaccines into their routine immunization programs (2). To guide vaccine introduction decisions, countries should consider all available information, including surveillance of laboratory-confirmed cases, population-based and modeling studies, and outbreak reports. Establishing and strengthening typhoid fever surveillance will be important to measure vaccine impact.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Typhoid Fever* / epidemiology
  • Typhoid Fever* / prevention & control
  • Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines*
  • Vaccines, Conjugate


  • Vaccines, Conjugate
  • Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  • Anti-Infective Agents