Impact of HLA polymorphisms on the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality in patients with renal replacement therapy

Hum Immunol. 2023 Apr;84(4):272-277. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2023.01.008. Epub 2023 Feb 6.

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection could present in a clinical spectrum of varying severity. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a crucial component of the viral antigen presentation pathway and immune response to the virus. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of HLA allele polymorphisms on the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality in Turkish kidney transplant recipients and wait listed patients, along with clinical characteristics of the patients. We analysed data from 401 patients with clinical characteristics according to presence (n = 114, COVID+) or absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 287, COVID-) who had previously been HLA typed to support transplantation. The incidence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was 28 %, and the mortality rate was 19 % in our wait listed/ transplanted patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a significant HLA association between HLA- B*49 (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI, 1.13-5.82; p = 0.02) and HLA- DRB1*14 (OR = 2.48, 95 % CI, 1.18-5.20; p = 0.01) with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Besides, in COVID + patients, HLA-C*03 was correlated to mortality (OR = 8.31, 95 % CI, 1.26-54.82; P = 0.03). The new finding from our analysis suggests that HLA polymorphisms could be associated with the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality in Turkish patients with renal replacement therapy. This study may provide new information for the clinician to identify and manage sub-populations at risk in the setting of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID‐19; Coronavirus; Human leukocyte antigen; Pandemic; SARS-CoV2.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / genetics
  • HLA-B Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • SARS-CoV-2

Substances

  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • HLA-B Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II