The Impact of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Children's Health-Related Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

J Atten Disord. 2023 Apr;27(6):598-611. doi: 10.1177/10870547231155438. Epub 2023 Feb 17.


Objective: To investigate the association between children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed literature published between 2010 and 2022. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted for studies that used the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL).

Results: Twenty-three studies were included, with most rated as "good" quality. Meta-analysis found "very large" effect in both parent- (Hedges' g -1.67, 95% CI [-2.57, -0.78]) and child-reported (Hedges' g -1.28, 95% CI [-2.01, -0.56]) HRQoL for children with ADHD compared to children without ADHD. No difference between parent- and child-reported HRQoL in children with and without ADHD was found. However, parent-reported HRQoL was lower than child-reported HRQoL among children with ADHD.

Conclusion: ADHD was associated with substantially poorer children's HRQoL. Among children with ADHD, parents rated their children's HRQoL lower than the children themselves.

Keywords: ADHD; HRQoL; children and adolescents.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity*
  • Humans
  • Parents
  • Quality of Life