Combined computational and experimental study about the incorporation of phosphorus into the structure of graphene oxide

Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2023 Mar 1;25(9):6927-6943. doi: 10.1039/d2cp03666e.


Phosphorus-containing graphene-based hybrids are materials with outstanding properties for diverse applications. In this work, an easy route to produce phosphorus-graphene oxide hybrid materials is described, involving the use of variable amounts of H3PO4 and H2SO4 during the reaction of oxidation of a graphitic precursor. The physical and chemical features of the hybrids change significantly with the variation in the acid amounts used in the syntheses. XPS and solid-state 13C and 31P NMR results show that the hybrids contain large amounts of oxygen functional groups, with the phosphorus incorporation proceeding mostly through the formation of phosphate-like linkages and other functions with C-O-P bonds. The experimental findings are supported by DFT calculations, which allow the assessment of the energetics and the geometry of the interaction between phosphate groups and graphene-based models; these calculations are also used to predict the chemical shifts in the 31P and 13C NMR spectra of the models, which show good agreement with the experimentally observed solid-state NMR spectra.