Mucormycosis infection associated with global COVID-19 pandemic - an institutional histopathological study

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2023 Mar 1;28(2):e99-e107. doi: 10.4317/medoral.25130.

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the recent times have instilled signs of immunosuppression globally which has further precipitated increasing range of opportunistic infections. Mucormycosis is a distressing opportunistic fungal infection with a high incidence and is the third commonest acute invasive infection following candidiasis and aspergillosis. The aim of the present observational study is to delineate the enigmatic histopathological profile between mucormycosis cases seen prior to pandemic (PPM) and pandemic associated mucormycosis (PAM).

Material and methods: Tissue archives of 105 histopathologically diagnosed cases of mucormycosis were included and analysed for demographical details and histopathological parameters like fungal load and localization, granuloma formation, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue invasion.

Results: 0ut of 105 included cases, 11/105 (10.48%) were reported PPM and 94/105 (89.52%) PAM. Among 94 cases of PAM, 51/94 (54%) cases also showed COVID-19 positivity, while 43/94 (46%) did not. Of all the histological variables, increased fungal load and necrosis were observed in PAM relative to PPM cases.

Conclusions: The histopathological variables like fungal load, necrosis, granuloma formation and tissue invasion, could help the clinician in assessing the clinical status at the time of tissue diagnosis and improve the treatment accordingly.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Granuloma
  • Humans
  • Mucormycosis* / diagnosis
  • Mucormycosis* / drug therapy
  • Mucormycosis* / epidemiology
  • Necrosis / complications
  • Necrosis / epidemiology
  • Pandemics

Supplementary concepts

  • Mucor infection