A likely pathogenic ACTG1 variant in a child showing partial phenotypic overlap with Baraitser-Winter syndrome

Am J Med Genet A. 2023 Jun;191(6):1565-1569. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63157. Epub 2023 Feb 21.


Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease (AD) caused by heterozygous variants in ACTB (BRWS1) or ACTG1 (BRWS2) genes. BRWS features developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Brain abnormalities (especially pachygyria), microcephaly, epilepsy, as well as hearing impairment, cardiovascular and genitourinary abnormalities may be present. We report on a 4-year-old female, who was addressed to our institution because of psychomotor delay associated with microcephaly and dysmorphic features, short stature, mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, mild cardiac septal hypertrophy, and abdominal swelling. Clinical exome sequencing detected a c.617G>A p.(Arg206Gln) de novo variant in ACTG1 gene. Such variant has been previously reported in association with a form of AD nonsyndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss and we classified it as likely pathogenic according to ACMG/AMP criteria, despite our patient's phenotype only partially overlapped BWRS2. Our finding supports the extreme variability of the ACTG1-related disorders, ranging from classical BRWS2 to nuanced clinical expressions not fitting the original description, and occasionally featuring previously undescribed clinical findings.

Keywords: ACTG1; BRWS2; Baraitser-Winter syndrome; clinical exome sequencing.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / genetics
  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / pathology
  • Actins / genetics
  • Child, Preschool
  • Epilepsy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability* / diagnosis
  • Intellectual Disability* / genetics
  • Lissencephaly*
  • Microcephaly* / diagnosis
  • Microcephaly* / genetics
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Nervous System Malformations*
  • Phenotype


  • ACTG1 protein, human
  • Actins

Supplementary concepts

  • Fryns-Aftimos Syndrome
  • Nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss