A scoping review of lung function in children and adolescents living with HIV in the era of antiretroviral treatment

Pediatr Pulmonol. 2023 May;58(5):1344-1354. doi: 10.1002/ppul.26365. Epub 2023 Mar 21.


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in children and adolescents remains an important health challenge in many countries and is commonly associated with lung disease. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly improved survival but chronic lung disease is a common ongoing challenge. We conducted a scoping review of studies that have reported lung function in school-aged children and adolescents living with HIV.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed by searching Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases, limited to articles published between 2011 and 2021 in English language. Inclusion criteria were studies involving participants living with HIV aged 5-18 years and having spirometry data. The primary outcome was lung function as measured by spirometry.

Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the review. Most study participants were living in the sub-Saharan African region. The prevalence of reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) ranged from 25.3% to 73% across studies, reduced forced vital capacity (FVC) ranged from 10% to 42% and reduced FEV1 /FVC ranged from 3% to 26%. The mean z-score of FEV1 ranged from -2.19 to -0.73, mean zFEV1 /FVC ranged from -0.74 to 0.2, and mean FVC ranged from -1.86 to -0.63.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of lung function impairment in children and adolescents living with HIV, which persists in the ART era. Further studies are needed of interventions that might improve lung function in these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: HIV; adolescents; children; lung function; spirometry.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • HIV
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Lung Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Spirometry
  • Vital Capacity


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents