Diagnostic performance of MRI for the assessment of extraocular muscle invasion in malignant sinonasal tumors

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2023 Aug;280(8):3687-3693. doi: 10.1007/s00405-023-07874-5. Epub 2023 Feb 22.


Purpose: Preoperative assessment of extraocular muscle invasion is essential for therapeutic strategies and prognostic evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for evaluation of extraocular muscle (EM) invasion by malignant sinonasal tumors.

Materials and methods: Consecutively, 76 patients of sinonasal malignant tumors with orbital invasion were included in the present study. Preoperative MRI imaging features were analyzed by two radiologists independently. The diagnostic performances of MR imaging features for detecting EM involvement were evaluated by comparing imaging findings to histopathology data.

Results: A total of 31 extraocular muscles were involved by sinonasal malignant tumors in 22 patients, including 10 medial rectus muscles (32.2%), 10 inferior rectus muscles (32.2%), 9 superior oblique muscles (29.1%), and 2 external rectus muscles (6.5%). The EM involved by sinonasal malignant tumors usually showed relatively high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, indistinguishable from the tumor, nodular enlargement and abnormal enhancement (p = 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). Using a combination of EM abnormal enhancement and indistinguishable from the tumor in multivariate logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for detecting orbital EM invasion by sinonasal tumors were 93.5, 85.2, 76.3, 96.3 and 88%, respectively.

Conclusion: MRI imaging features show high diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of extraocular muscle invasion by malignant sinonasal tumors.

Keywords: Extraocular muscle; Magnetic resonance imaging; Orbit; Sinonasal.

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Neoplasms*
  • Oculomotor Muscles* / diagnostic imaging
  • Predictive Value of Tests


  • Contrast Media