Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypoxemia and COVID-19 Severity

Curr Med Chem. 2024;31(10):1265-1277. doi: 10.2174/0929867330666230222104345.

Abstract

Objective: The primary goal of the present study was to measure the implications of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: A systematic search of the literature published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2021, was conducted on PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Afterwards, an observational study was designed based on the electronic health records of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a tertiary referral hospital during the same period. A total of 179 COVID-19 cases were divided into two groups: cases with a history of CAD and percutaneous coronary intervention (CAD/PCI+, n = 89) and controls (n = 90). Clinical data were extracted from the electronic database of the hospital and statistically analyzed.

Results: After the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, only three studies were deemed eligible, one of which was concerned with the impact of CAD on the all-cause mortality of COVID-19. Results from our observational study indicated that the cases were older (median age: 74 vs. 45) and more likely to develop hypoxemia (25.8% vs. 8.8%) than the controls. CAD/PCI+ was correlated with a more severe COVID-19 (11% vs. 1%). Age was a moderately significant independent predictor of increased COVID-19 severity, while hypoxemia was not.

Conclusion: Considering the negative impact of hypoxemia on the prognosis of COVID-19 and its higher prevalence among COVID-19 patients with underlying CAD, further research is warranted to unravel the negative effects of COVID-19 on the mechanisms of gas exchange and delivery in patients with pre-existing CAD.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus disease 2019; angioplasty; emerging infectious disease.; hypoxemia; percutaneous coronary intervention.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome