Purpose: This qualitative narrative synthesis sought to identify pathways connecting socioeconomic marginalization (SEM) and overdose for people who use drugs.
Methods: We included studies with qualitative examination of SEM and fatal and non-fatal overdose published in English between 2000 and 2021. Studies were systematically identified and screened by searching MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Registry, citations, and contacting experts. Risk of bias and quality assessments were performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist and the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research approach. Data were synthesized using a thematic synthesis approach.
Results: The primary search strategy found 5909 articles that met the initial screening criteria. The review and screening process led to a final dataset of 27 qualitative articles. The four key findings of this narrative synthesis revealed aspects of SEM which shaped drug poisoning risk for people who use drugs: (1) resource insufficiency, labor market exclusion and deindustrialization, (2) homelessness and housing, (3) policing, criminalization, and interactions with emergency services, and (4) gendered and racialized dimensions of inequality. Findings led to creating a typology that includes material, behavioral, psychological, social, and environmental pathways that contain multiple mechanisms connecting SEM to overdose. This review revealed reciprocal connections between overdose and SEM via institutional pathways with reinforcing mechanisms, and interrelationships present within and between pathways. Quality assessments indicated moderate confidence in three of four findings (Findings 2,3, and 4 above) and high confidence in one finding (Finding 1).
Conclusion: SEM is strongly linked to drug poisoning, and the mechanisms establishing these connections can be classified within four pathways. The interconnectedness of these mechanisms can lead to intensification of overdose risk and reinforcement of SEM itself.
Keywords: Drug-related harm; Opioids; Overdose; Poverty; Socioeconomic status.
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