Genotoxic Risks to Male Reproductive Health from Radiofrequency Radiation

Cells. 2023 Feb 12;12(4):594. doi: 10.3390/cells12040594.


During modern era, mobile phones, televisions, microwaves, radio, and wireless devices, etc., have become an integral part of our daily lifestyle. All these technologies employ radiofrequency (RF) waves and everyone is exposed to them, since they are widespread in the environment. The increasing risk of male infertility is a growing concern to the human population. Excessive and long-term exposure to non-ionizing radiation may cause genetic health effects on the male reproductive system which could be a primitive factor to induce cancer risk. With respect to the concerned aspect, many possible RFR induced genotoxic studies have been reported; however, reports are very contradictory and showed the possible effect on humans and animals. Thus, the present review is focusing on the genomic impact of the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) underlying the male infertility issue. In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies have been incorporated explaining the role of RFR on the male reproductive system. It includes RFR induced-DNA damage, micronuclei formation, chromosomal aberrations, SCE generation, etc. In addition, attention has also been paid to the ROS generation after radiofrequency radiation exposure showing a rise in oxidative stress, base adduct formation, sperm head DNA damage, or cross-linking problems between DNA & protein.

Keywords: DNA damage; genotoxicity; male infertility; oxidative stress; radiofrequency radiation; reproductive health.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Damage
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male*
  • Male
  • Reproductive Health*
  • Semen

Grants and funding

The work was financially supported by the Indian Council of Medical Research (Grant No. 5/10/FR/28/2019-RBMCH), New Delhi, India-10029.