Investigation of the Exposure of Schoolchildren to Ultrafine Particles (PM0.1) during the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Medium-Sized City in Indonesia

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Feb 8;20(4):2947. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20042947.


The health risk of schoolchildren who were exposed to airborne fine and ultrafine particles (PM0.1) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Jambi City (a medium-sized city in Sumatra Island), Indonesia was examined. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information on schoolchildren from selected schools and involved information on personal profiles; living conditions; daily activities and health status. Size-segregated ambient particulate matter (PM) in school environments was collected over a period of 24 h on weekdays and the weekend. The personal exposure of PM of eight selected schoolchildren from five schools was evaluated for a 12-h period during the daytime using a personal air sampler for PM0.1 particles. The schoolchildren spent their time mostly indoors (~88%), while the remaining ~12% was spent in traveling and outdoor activities. The average exposure level was 1.5~7.6 times higher than the outdoor level and it was particularly high for the PM0.1 fraction (4.8~7.6 times). Cooking was shown to be a key parameter that explains such a large increase in the exposure level. The PM0.1 had the largest total respiratory deposition doses (RDDs), particularly during light exercise. The high level of PM0.1 exposure by indoor sources potentially associated with health risks was shown to be important.

Keywords: PM0.1; personal exposure; questionnaire survey; school environments; ultrafine particles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Air Pollution, Indoor* / analysis
  • COVID-19*
  • Child
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Humans
  • Indonesia
  • Pandemics
  • Particle Size
  • Particulate Matter / analysis


  • Particulate Matter
  • Air Pollutants

Grants and funding

This research was funded by ADB-AKSI UNJA, grant number and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 21H03618.