A Scoping Review of Sleep Apnea: Where Do We Stand?

Life (Basel). 2023 Jan 31;13(2):387. doi: 10.3390/life13020387.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition in which there is a recurrent collapse of the upper airway while sleeping, is a widespread disease affecting 5% to 10% people worldwide. Despite several advances in the treatment modalities for OSA, morbidity and mortality remain a concern. Common symptoms include loud snoring, gasping for air during sleep, morning headache, insomnia, hypersomnia, attention deficits, and irritability. Obese individuals, male gender, older age (65+), family history, smoking, and alcohol consumption are well recognized risk factors of OSA. This condition holds the ability to increase inflammatory cytokines, cause metabolic dysfunction, and increase the sympathetic output, all of which exacerbate OSA due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss its brief history, risk factors, complications, treatment modalities, and the role of clinicians in curbing its risk.

Keywords: CPAP; morbidity; pathogenesis; risk factors; sleep apnea; upper airway.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.