Nanoscale composite energetic materials (CEMs) based on oxidizer and fuel have potential advantages in energy adjustment and regulation through oxygen balance (OB) change. The micro- and nanosized fibers based on nano nitrocellulose (NC)-ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were prepared by the electrospinning technique, and the morphology, thermal stability, combustion behaviors, and mechanical sensitivity of the fibers were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gas pressure measurement of thermostatic decomposition, laser ignition, and sensitivity tests. The results showed that the prepared fibers with fluffy 3D macrostructure were constructed by the overlap of micro/nanofibers with the energetic particles embedded in the NC matrix. The first exothermic peak temperature (Tp) of the samples containing ADN decreased by 10.1 °C at most compared to that of ADN, and the pressure rise time of all the samples containing ADN moved forward compared to that of the sample containing NC only. Furthermore, ADN can decrease the ignition delay time of NC-based fibers under atmosphere at room temperature from 33 ms to 9 ms and can enhance the burning intensity of NC-based fibers under normal pressure. In addition, compared to the single high explosive CL-20 or RDX, the mechanical sensitivities of the composite materials containing high explosive CL-20 or RDX were much decreased. The positive oxygen balance of ADN and the intensive interactions between ADN and NC can reduce the ignition delay time and promote the burning reaction intensity of NC-based composite fibers, while the mechanical sensitivities of composite fibers could be improved.
Keywords: ammonium dinitramide; electrospinning; energetic material; nitrocellulose.