Oxylipins, pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators, are associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and may be influenced by diet. This study aimed to develop a nutrient pattern related to oxylipin profiles and test their associations with the risk of T1D among youth. The nutrient patterns were developed with a reduced rank regression in a nested case-control study (n = 335) within the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal cohort of children at risk of T1D. The oxylipin profiles (adjusted for genetic predictors) were the response variables. The nutrient patterns were tested in the case-control study (n = 69 T1D cases, 69 controls), then validated in the DAISY cohort using a joint Cox proportional hazards model (n = 1933, including 81 T1D cases). The first nutrient pattern (NP1) was characterized by low beta cryptoxanthin, flavanone, vitamin C, total sugars and iron, and high lycopene, anthocyanidins, linoleic acid and sodium. After adjusting for T1D family history, the HLA genotype, sex and race/ethnicity, NP1 was associated with a lower risk of T1D in the nested case-control study (OR: 0.44, p = 0.0126). NP1 was not associated with the risk of T1D (HR: 0.54, p-value = 0.1829) in the full DAISY cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm the nested case-control findings and investigate the modifiable factors for oxylipins.
Keywords: nutrient pattern; oxylipin; reduced rank regression; type 1 diabetes.