Controversial Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Reducing Insulin Resistance and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Prediabetes: A Systematic Review

Nutrients. 2023 Feb 16;15(4):983. doi: 10.3390/nu15040983.


Background: Prediabetes has become a worldwide health problem. Multiple clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in preventing the conversion to diabetes, but the results are inconsistent. The aims of this study were to evaluate the current knowledge and to suggest recommendations for researchers on designing future trials regarding that matter.

Methods: Four databases were searched for randomized control trials from the last 10 years about vitamin D and insulin resistance. The systematic electronic literature search identified 2645 studies, of which thirty-eight qualified for full-text reading and discussion. Finally, eight trials were included.

Results: Final results of seven trials reported that supplementation of vitamin D does not reduce insulin resistance nor reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 development in prediabetes. Only one trial showed improvements in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

Conclusions: Due to the great variation and biases in study designs, an unambiguous interpretation of the results is not possible. To eliminate those vulnerabilities in the future, we made certain suggestions for study design. Long-term and well-designed studies are still required.

Keywords: insulin resistance; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / prevention & control
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Prediabetic State* / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / drug therapy
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Blood Glucose
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.