Long-term outcomes following transvenous lead extraction: Data from a tertiary referral center

Int J Cardiol. 2023 May 1;378:32-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2023.02.040. Epub 2023 Feb 24.


Background: Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) has shown a safe and efficacy profile in the intraoperative and short-term setting; however, data on long-term outcomes are limited.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in patients who underwent TLE.

Methods: Consecutive patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) who underwent TLE between 2014 and 2016 were retrospectively studied. The primary outcome was the composite endpoint of death and repeated TLE stratified by infective/non-infective indication. Individual components of the primary outcome were also evaluated.

Results: One hundred ninety-one patients were included in the analysis, 50% extracted for CIED-related infection. Complete procedural success was achieved in 189 patients (99%) with no major acute complications. After a median of 6.5 years, infection indication was associated with significantly lower event-free survival (67% vs. 83% non-infection group, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-3.81, p = 0.04). All-cause mortality rate was higher in the TLE infection group (30% vs. 10%, p < 0.01). The rate of repeated TLE did not differ between groups (4% vs. 7%, p = 0.62). Among patients who had TLE for infection, the presence of vegetation (aHR 2.56; 95%CI 1.17-5.63, p = 0.02) and positive blood cultures (aHR 2.64; 95%CI 1.04-6.70, p = 0.04) were independently associated with the primary outcome.

Conclusion: Patients who underwent TLE for CIED-related infection exhibit a high mortality risk during long-term follow-up. Vegetation and positive blood cultures in patients with CIED-related infection are associated with a worse prognosis regardless of successful and uncomplicated TLE.

Keywords: Cardiac implantable electronic device; Infection; Lead removal; Long-term follow-up; Transvenous lead extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Defibrillators, Implantable* / adverse effects
  • Device Removal
  • Humans
  • Pacemaker, Artificial* / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Treatment Outcome