The authors reviewed the medical records of 316 children admitted between January 1977 and March 1985 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema. In this group of patients, 1 to 17 years old treated without antifibrinolytics, the incidence of secondary hemorrhage was 7.6% (24 of 316 patients) of whom three required surgical evacuation of the clot. The risk of rebleeding did not correlate with the patient's age, use of topical steroids, or cycloplegics. Of 176 patients followed from 1 month to 7 years post-hospital discharge, 91% achieved 20/30 vision or better, but only 77% of the patients with secondary hemorrhage attained this level of vision. Amblyopia, a potential threat in young children, occurred in only two children both of whom also required cataract extraction. From our captive pediatric population of 228,000 the incidence of traumatic hyphema is 17 per 100,000 children per year.