Nephroprotective Effects of Dapagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Intern Med. 2023;62(5):681-688. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.6685-20. Epub 2023 Mar 1.


Objective This study analyzed changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated using cystatin C (eGFRcys) and sodium excretion in the urine after administering dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to conventional treatment for diabetes. Methods This was a single-center, single-group, prospective interventional study. Dapagliflozin was administered to improve the plasma glucose control in 30 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age 53±8 years old; 66.6% men). Blood and urine tests were performed before and 6 and 12 months after dapagliflozin administration. The daily sodium excretion was estimated with the Kawasaki formula using second-morning urine samples. Results The eGFRcys did not markedly differ before and 6 months after the dapagliflozin administration but was significantly increased after 12 months (p<0.001), and the estimated daily sodium excretion was also significantly increased (p<0.001 at 6 months and p=0.002 at 12 months). The systolic and diastolic blood pressures tended to decrease after administration. The HbA1c level after the administration of dapagliflozin tended to be lower in the T3 group, showing the smallest increase in changes in the estimated daily sodium excretion from baseline to 6 months (28.2-107.5 mEq/day), than in the combined groups of T1 (219.5-110.1 mEq/day) and T2 (101.4-28.9 mEq/day). In contrast, the eGFRcys was significantly higher in the combined groups of T1 and T2 than that in the T3 group at both 6 and 12 months (p=0.031 and p=0.007, respectively). Conclusions Add-on therapy with dapagliflozin increased the urinary sodium excretion and decreased the blood pressure even in the early phase of this therapy. Our results suggest that dapagliflozin add-on therapy may exert nephroprotective effects in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: dapagliflozin; diabetes mellitus; nephroprotective effects; sodium excretion; sodium glucose cotransporter-2.

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Female
  • Glucosides
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies


  • dapagliflozin
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides