Introduction: Myeloid tumors typically harbor TP53 mutations, which are linked to a dismal prognosis. There are fewer studies on whether TP53-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB) differ in molecular characteristics and should be considered as separate entities.
Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2021, a retrospective analysis was done on a total of 73 newly diagnosed AML patients and 61 MDS-EB patients from the first affiliated hospital of Soochow University. We described a survival profile and a thorough characterization of newly found TP53-mutant AML and MDS-EB and investigated the relationship between these characteristics and overall survival (OS).
Results: 38 (31.1%) were mono-allelic, and 84 (68.9%) were bi-allelic. There is no significant difference between TP53-mutated AML and MDS-EB (median OS 12.9 verse 14.4 months; p = .558). Better overall survival was linked to mono-allelic TP53 than bi-allelic TP53(HR = 3.030, CI:1.714-5.354, p < .001). However, the number of TP53 mutations and comutations were not significantly associated with OS. TP53 variant allele frequency cutoff of 50% is significant correlation with OS (HR: 2.177, 95% CI: 1.142-4.148; p = .0063).
Conclusion: Our data revealed that allele status and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant independently affect the prognostic of AML and MDS-EB patients, with a concordance of molecular features and survival between these two disease entities. Our analysis favors considering TP53-mutated AML/MDS-EB as a distinct disorder.
Keywords: TP53 mutation; acute myeloid leukemia; molecular characterization; myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts; prognosis.
© 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.