Peripheral Klotho protects the kidney and brain by regulating M2a/M2c macrophage polarization in d-gal-treated aged mice

Tissue Cell. 2023 Jun:82:102049. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2023.102049. Epub 2023 Feb 24.


In elderly individuals, aging can cause changes in the structure and function of one or more organs, increasing their susceptibility to various damage factors, especially the heart, kidney, brain and other important organs. Therefore, the incidence of cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and chronic kidney disease in the elderly population is significantly higher than that in the general population. In our previous study, the hearts of aged mice did not express the antiaging protein Klotho (KL), but peripheral elevation of KL may significantly delay cardiac aging. The kidney and brain are the main organs that produce KL, but the effects and mechanism of peripheral KL supplementation on the kidney and hippocampus are still unclear. To study the effect and possible mechanism of KL against kidney and hippocampus aging, 60 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the Adult group, the KL group, the D-gal-induced Aged group, and the KL + Aged group. The results showed that KL increased anti-inflammatory M2a/M2c macrophages in the kidney and hippocampus of aging mice, significantly reduced tissue inflammation and oxidative stress, and improved organ function and aging status. More importantly, we demonstrate that despite the impermeable bloodbrain barrier in mice, peripherally administered KL surprisingly enhances M2-type microglia polarization, induces cognitive enhancement and reduces neuroinflammation. Cellular experimental results suggest that KL may play a role in delaying senescence by regulating the TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB signaling pathway to regulate macrophage polarization and reduce aging-related inflammation and oxidative stress.

Keywords: Antiaging mechanism; Brain aging; Kidney aging; Klotho; Macrophage polarization.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Glucuronidase* / metabolism
  • Glucuronidase* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Kidney* / metabolism
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice


  • Glucuronidase