Carotid stenting: Does stent design matter?

Vascular. 2023 Mar 3:17085381231160957. doi: 10.1177/17085381231160957. Online ahead of print.


Background: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is considered an important tool in carotid revascularization. Carotid artery stenting is usually performed by using self-expandable stent with different designs. The stent design influences many physical characteristics. Also, it may affect the complication rate with special relevance to perioperative stroke, hemodynamic instability, and late restenosis.

Methods: This study comprised all consecutive patients who underwent carotid artery stenting for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis from March 2014 to May 2021. Both symptomatic patient and asymptomatic patients were included. Patients with a symptomatic carotid stenosis of ≥50% or asymptomatic carotid stenosis of ≥60% were selected for carotid artery stenting . Patients with fibromuscular dysplasia and acute or unstable plaque were not included. Variables of clinical relevance were tested in multivariable analysis using binary logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 728 patients were enrolled. The majority of this cohort was asymptomatic (578/728, 79.4%), while 150/728 (20.6%) were symptomatic. The mean degree of carotid stenosis was 77.82 ± 4.73%, with a mean plaque length of 1.76 ± 0.55 cm. A total of 277 (38%) patients were treated with Xact® Carotid Stent System. Successful carotid artery stenting was achieved in 698 (96%) of patients. Of these patients, stroke rate in symptomatic patients was nine (5.8%), while in asymptomatic patients was 20 (3.4%). In a multivariable analysis, the open-cell carotid stent was not associated with a differential risk for combined acute and sub-acute neurologic complications as compared with closed-cell stents. Patients treated with open cell stents had a significantly lower rate of procedural hypotension (P 0.0188) at bivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Carotid artery stenting is considered a safe alternative to CEA that can be used in selected average surgical risk patient. Different stent designs can affect the rate of major adverse events in carotid artery stenting patients, but further studies are necessary with avoiding different bias to study the effect of different stent designs.