Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and degree of any neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 (FHH3).
Study design: A formal neurodevelopmental assessment was performed in children diagnosed with FHH3. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, which is a standardized parent report assessment tool for adaptive behavior, was used to assess communication, social skills, and motor function and to generate a composite score.
Results: Six patients were diagnosed with hypercalcemia between 0.1 and 8 years of age. All had neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood consisting of either global developmental delay, motor delay, expressive speech disturbances, learning difficulties, hyperactivity, or autism spectrum disorder. Four out of the 6 probands had a composite Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales SDS of < -2.0, indicating adaptive malfunctioning. Significant deficits were observed in the domains of communication (mean SDS: -2.0, P < .01), social skills (mean SDS: -1.3, P < .05), and motor skills (mean SDS: 2.6, P < .05). Individuals were equally affected across domains, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation. All family members affected with FHH3 also described evidence of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, including mild-to-moderate learning difficulties, dyslexia, and hyperactivity.
Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental abnormalities appear to be a highly penetrant and common feature of FHH3, and early detection is warranted to provide appropriate educational support. This case series also supports consideration of serum calcium measurement as part of the diagnostic work-up in any child presenting with unexplained neurodevelopmental abnormalities.
Keywords: FHH3; VABS; adaptor protein; cognition; development.
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