Etiology and Management of Edema: A Review

Adv Kidney Dis Health. 2023 Mar;30(2):110-123. doi: 10.1053/j.akdh.2022.12.002.


The development of peripheral edema can often pose a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for practitioners due to its association with a wide variety of underlying disorders ranging in severity. Updates to the original Starling's principle have provided new mechanistic insights into edema formation. Additionally, contemporary data highlighting the role of hypochloremia in the development of diuretic resistance provide a possible new therapeutic target. This article reviews the pathophysiology of edema formation and discusses implications for treatment.

Keywords: Albumin; Diuretics; Edema; Heart failure; Oncotic pressures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acid-Base Imbalance*
  • Causality
  • Diuretics
  • Edema
  • Humans


  • Diuretics