Parathyroidectomy versus oral cinacalcet on cardiovascular parameters in peritoneal dialysis patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (PROCEED): a randomized trial

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2023 Jul 31;38(8):1823-1835. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfad043.


Background: This trial aimed to evaluate oral cinacalcet versus total parathyroidectomy (PTx) with forearm autografting on cardiovascular surrogate outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in dialysis patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).

Design: In this pilot prospective randomized trial conducted in two university-affiliated hospitals, 65 adult peritoneal dialysis patients with advanced SHPT were randomized to receive either oral cinacalcet or PTx. Primary endpoints were changes in left ventricular (LV) mass index by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) over 12 months. Secondary endpoints included changes in heart valves calcium scores, aortic stiffness, biochemical parameters of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) and HRQOL measures over 12 months.

Results: Changes in LV mass index, CACS, heart valves calcium score, aortic pulse wave velocity and HRQOL did not differ between groups or within groups, despite significant reductions in plasma calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone in both groups. Cinacalcet-treated patients experienced more cardiovascular-related hospitalizations than those who underwent PTx (P = .008) but the difference became insignificant after adjusting for baseline difference in heart failure (P = .43). With the same monitoring frequency, cinacalcet-treated patients had fewer hospitalizations due to hypercalcemia (1.8%) than patients who underwent PTx (16.7%) (P = .005). No significant changes were observed in HRQOL measures in either group.

Conclusions: Both cinacalcet and PTx effectively improved various biochemical abnormalities of CKD-MBD and stabilized but did not reduce LV mass, coronary artery and heart valves calcification, or arterial stiffness, or improve patient-centered HRQOL measures in PD patients with advanced SHPT. Cinacalcet may be used in place of PTx for treating advanced SHPT. Long-term and powered studies are required to evaluate PTx versus cinacalcet on hard cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients. Trial registration: identifier: NCT01447368.

Keywords: advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism; cinacalcet; parathyroidectomy; peritoneal dialysis; randomized trial.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder* / etiology
  • Cinacalcet* / administration & dosage
  • Cinacalcet* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary* / drug therapy
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary* / surgery
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / therapy
  • Parathyroidectomy* / adverse effects
  • Peritoneal Dialysis* / adverse effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy


  • Cinacalcet

Associated data