The consumption of caffeine in response to insufficient sleep may impair the onset and maintenance of subsequent sleep. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of caffeine on the characteristics of night-time sleep, with the intent to identify the time after which caffeine should not be consumed prior to bedtime. A systematic search of the literature was undertaken with 24 studies included in the analysis. Caffeine consumption reduced total sleep time by 45 min and sleep efficiency by 7%, with an increase in sleep onset latency of 9 min and wake after sleep onset of 12 min. Duration (+6.1 min) and proportion (+1.7%) of light sleep (N1) increased with caffeine intake and the duration (-11.4 min) and proportion (-1.4%) of deep sleep (N3 and N4) decreased with caffeine intake. To avoid reductions in total sleep time, coffee (107 mg per 250 mL) should be consumed at least 8.8 h prior to bedtime and a standard serve of pre-workout supplement (217.5 mg) should be consumed at least 13.2 h prior to bedtime. The results of the present study provide evidence-based guidance for the appropriate consumption of caffeine to mitigate the deleterious effects on sleep.
Keywords: Adenosine; Sleep behaviours; Sleep disruption; Sleep recommendations; Sleepiness; Stimulant.
Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.