Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are caused by monogenic variants that affect the host response to bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. As such, individuals with IEI often present with severe, recurrent, and life-threatening infections. However, the spectrum of disease due to IEI is very broad and extends to include autoimmunity, malignancy, and atopic diseases such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, and food and environmental allergies. Here, I review IEI that affect cytokine signaling pathways that dysregulate CD4+ T-cell differentiation, resulting in increased T-helper-2 (Th2) cell development, function, and pathogenicity. These are elegant examples of how rare IEI can provide unique insights into more common pathologies such as allergic disease that are impacting the general population at increased frequency.
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