Metabolic control during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: results from the German DPV initiative

Acta Diabetol. 2023 Jun;60(6):757-766. doi: 10.1007/s00592-023-02050-x. Epub 2023 Mar 4.


Aim: To assess effects of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic on metabolic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Germany in a population-based analysis.

Methods: Data from 33,372 pediatric T1D patients from the Diabetes Prospective Follow-up (DPV) registry, with face-to-face visits or telemedicine contacts in the years 2019-2021, were available. Datasets from eight time periods between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021, according to SARS-CoV2 incidence waves, were compared to those from five control time periods. Parameters of metabolic control were assessed with adjustment for sex, age, diabetes duration, and repeated measurements. Laboratory-measured HbA1c values and those estimated from CGM were aggregated into a combined glucose indicator (CGI).

Results: There was no clinically relevant difference in metabolic control between pandemic and control time periods with adjusted CGI values ranging from 7.61% [7.60-7.63] (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]) in the third quarter of 2019 to 7.83% [7.82-7.85] in the time period from January 1 to March 15 2020, in the other control periods, and during the pandemic, CGI values lay between these values. BMI-SDS rose during the pandemic from 0.29 [0.28-0.30] (mean [95% CI]) in the third quarter of 2019 to 0.40 [0.39-0.41] during the fourth wave. Adjusted insulin dose rose during the pandemic. Event rates for hypoglycemic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis remained unchanged.

Conclusions: We found no clinically relevant change of glycemic control or incidence of acute diabetes complications during the pandemic. The observed BMI increase may represent an important health risk for youth with T1D.

Keywords: Lockdown; Metabolic control; Pediatric diabetes; SARS-CoV2 pandemic.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / metabolism
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Prospective Studies
  • RNA, Viral
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Blood Glucose
  • RNA, Viral
  • Glucose