Reappraisal of oxidized HMGB1 as a mediator and biomarker

Future Sci OA. 2023 Feb 10;8(10):FSO828. doi: 10.2144/fsoa-2022-0052. eCollection 2022 Dec.


HMGB1 is a dual-function protein that acts as a chromatin-binding protein and as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) when released from activated immune cells or injured tissue. In much of the HMGB1 literature, immunomodulatory effects of extracellular HMGB1 are proposed to depend on its oxidation state. However, many of the foundational studies for this model have been retracted or flagged with expressions of concern. The literature on HMGB1 oxidation reveals a diversity of redox proteoforms of HMGB1 that are inconsistent with current models of redox modulation regulating HMGB1 secretion. A recent study of acetaminophen toxicity has identified previously unrecognized HMGB1 oxidized proteoforms. HMGB1 undergoes oxidative modifications that could serve as pathology-specific biomarkers and drug targets.

Keywords: A-box. B-box; DAMP; DNA-binding; HMGB1; RAGE; TLR; immune response; plasma biomarker; post-translational modification.

Publication types

  • Review