Stages of adolescent cigarette smoking acquisition: measurement and sample profiles

Addict Behav. 1987;12(4):319-29. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(87)90046-3.


A stage model of adolescent cigarette smoking acquisition was developed and an instrument to measure the stages was created. Internal validity was obtained based on principal component analysis, item analysis, and coefficient alpha. Three distinct components were labeled precontemplation, decision-making, and maintenance. The scales had reliability coefficients ranging from .86 to .94. External validity was obtained by relating the scale scores to measures of smoking behavior and intent to smoke. A cluster analysis resulted in nine distinct clusters, including profiles representing precontemplation, contemplation, decision-making, action, and maintenance stages. Further validity was obtained for the clusters by comparing groups on the perceived positive and negative consequences of smoking, and the derived pleasure from smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior*
  • Decision Making
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality Development*
  • Psychological Tests
  • Psychometrics
  • Smoking / psychology*