Oxidative stress in cerebrovascular disease and associated diseases

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023 Feb 17;14:1124419. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1124419. eCollection 2023.


Cellular aging is the most severe risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Simultaneously, oxidative stress (OS) is a critical factor in the aging process, resulting from an imbalance between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the antioxidant defense system. Emerging evidence indicates that OS is a common cause of several age-related brain pathologies, including cerebrovascular diseases. Elevated OS disrupts endothelial functional ability by diminishing the bioavailability of nitric oxide (a vascular dilator), induces atherosclerosis, and impairs vasculature, which are all common characteristics of cerebrovascular disease. In this review, we summarize evidence supporting an active role of OS in cerebrovascular disease progression, focusing primarily on stroke pathogenesis. We briefly discuss hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and genetic factors that are often linked to OS and are considered associated factors influencing stroke pathology. Finally, we discuss the current pharmaceutics/therapeutics available for treating several cerebrovascular diseases.

Keywords: hypertension; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress; risk factors; stroke.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cerebrovascular Disorders*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Stroke*

Grant support

This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology of Korea (2016R1D1A1B02008770, 2018M3C7A1056285, 2021R1A4A1027355, 2021M3H9A1097557, and 2022R1I1A3066646).