Cellular aging is the most severe risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Simultaneously, oxidative stress (OS) is a critical factor in the aging process, resulting from an imbalance between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the antioxidant defense system. Emerging evidence indicates that OS is a common cause of several age-related brain pathologies, including cerebrovascular diseases. Elevated OS disrupts endothelial functional ability by diminishing the bioavailability of nitric oxide (a vascular dilator), induces atherosclerosis, and impairs vasculature, which are all common characteristics of cerebrovascular disease. In this review, we summarize evidence supporting an active role of OS in cerebrovascular disease progression, focusing primarily on stroke pathogenesis. We briefly discuss hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and genetic factors that are often linked to OS and are considered associated factors influencing stroke pathology. Finally, we discuss the current pharmaceutics/therapeutics available for treating several cerebrovascular diseases.
Keywords: hypertension; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress; risk factors; stroke.
Copyright © 2023 Kumar, Bishayee, Park, Lee and Kim.