Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are perhaps the most severe, intractable and challenging child psychiatric disorders. They are complex, pervasive and highly heterogeneous and depend on multifactorial neurodevelopmental conditions. Although the pathogenesis of autism remains unclear, it revolves around altered neurodevelopmental patterns and their implications for brain function, although these cannot be specifically linked to symptoms. While these affect neuronal migration and connectivity, little is known about the processes that lead to the disruption of specific laminar excitatory and inhibitory cortical circuits, a key feature of ASD. It is evident that ASD has multiple underlying causes and this multigenic condition has been considered to also dependent on epigenetic effects, although the exact nature of the factors that could be involved remains unclear. However, besides the possibility for differential epigenetic markings directly affecting the relative expression levels of individual genes or groups of genes, there are at least three mRNA epitranscriptomic mechanisms, which function cooperatively and could, in association with both genotypes and environmental conditions, alter spatiotemporal proteins expression patterns during brain development, at both quantitative and qualitative levels, in a tissue-specific, and context-dependent manner. As we have already postulated, sudden changes in environmental conditions, such as those conferred by maternal inflammation/immune activation, influence RNA epitranscriptomic mechanisms, with the combination of these processes altering fetal brain development. Herein, we explore the postulate whereby, in ASD pathogenesis, RNA epitranscriptomics might take precedence over epigenetic modifications. RNA epitranscriptomics affects real-time differential expression of receptor and channel proteins isoforms, playing a prominent role in central nervous system (CNS) development and functions, but also RNAi which, in turn, impact the spatiotemporal expression of receptors, channels and regulatory proteins irrespective of isoforms. Slight dysregulations in few early components of brain development, could, depending upon their extent, snowball into a huge variety of pathological cerebral alterations a few years after birth. This may very well explain the enormous genetic, neuropathological and symptomatic heterogeneities that are systematically associated with ASD and psychiatric disorders at large.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); RNA epitranscriptomics; adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing; mRNA alternative splicing; mRNA poly(A)-tail modulation; maternal inflammation.
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