Aim: Peritoneal dissemination of infiltrative appendiceal tumors is a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a well-recognized treatment option for selected patients. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (NAC) has been shown to be associated with improved overall survival (OS) in colorectal peritoneal metastases but little is known of the impact of this from an appendiceal adenocarcinoma perspective.
Method: A prospective database of 294 patients with advanced appendiceal primary tumors undergoing CRS ± HIPEC between June 2009 and December 2020 was reviewed. Baseline characteristics and long-term outcomes were compared between patients with adenocarcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or upfront surgery.
Results: Eighty-six (29%) patients were histologically diagnosed with an appendiceal cancer. These included intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (11.6%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (43%), and goblet cell adenocarcinoma (GCA) or signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRCA) (45.4%). Twenty-five (29%) of these underwent NAC, of which eight (32%) exhibited some degree of radiological response. There was no statistical difference in OS at 3 years between the NAC and upfront surgery groups (47.3% vs. 75.8%, p = 0.372). Appendiceal histology subtypes, particularly GCA and SRCA (p = 0.039) and peritoneal carcinomatosis index >10 (p = 0.009), were factors independently associated with worse OS.
Conclusion: Administration of NAC did not appear to prolong OS in the operative management of disseminated appendiceal adenocarcinomas. GCA and SRCA subtypes display a more aggressive biological phenotype.
Keywords: appendiceal cancer; cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy; neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
© 2023 The Authors. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.