Anti-inflammatory Effect of a Combination of Cannabidiol and Morinda citrifolia Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 Macrophages

In Vivo. 2023 Mar-Apr;37(2):591-595. doi: 10.21873/invivo.13117.


Background/aim: The inflammatory response plays an important role in the activation and progression of many inflammation-related diseases. Cannabis sativa and Morinda citrifolia have long been used in folk medicine to treat inflammation. Cannabidiol is the most abundant non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in C. sativa and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in combination with M. citrifolia and compare its effects with those of cannabidiol alone.

Materials and methods: RAW264 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (200 ng/ml) were treated with cannabidiol (0-10 μM), M. citrifolia seed extract (0-100 μg/ml), or a combination of both for 8 or 24 h. Following the treatments, nitric oxide production in the activated RAW264 cells and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were assessed.

Results: Our results showed that combination of cannabidiol (2.5 μM) and M. citrifolia seed extract (100 μg/ml) exhibited more efficient inhibition of nitric oxide production than cannabidiol treatment alone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 cells. The combination treatment also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of combined treatment with cannabidiol and M. citrifolia seed extract causes a reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators.

Keywords: Cannabidiol; Morinda citrifolia; RAW264 cells; anti-inflammatory; nitric oxide.

MeSH terms

  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Macrophages
  • Morinda*
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology


  • Cannabidiol
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Plant Extracts