Patient-Reported Frailty and Functional Status in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Insights From VITALITY-HFpEF

JACC Heart Fail. 2023 Apr;11(4):392-403. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2022.11.015. Epub 2023 Feb 1.


Background: The association between frailty and health status in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is not well known.

Objectives: The authors examined the association between: 1) patient-reported frailty, measured by the Fried frailty phenotype, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Physical Limitation Score (KCCQ-PLS), 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), and other baseline characteristics; 2) baseline frailty compared with KCCQ-PLS and 24-week 6MWD; 3) frailty and changes in KCCQ-PLS and 6MWD; and 4) vericiguat and frailty at 24 weeks.

Methods: In a post hoc analysis, patients in the VITALITY-HFpEF (Patient-reported Outcomes in Vericiguat-treated Patients With HFpEF) trial were categorized as not frail (0 symptoms), prefrail (1-2 symptoms), and frail (≥3 symptoms) according to patient-reported number of frailty symptoms. Correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the association between frailty and other measures, and between frailty and KCCQ-PLS at baseline with 24-week 6MWD.

Results: Among 739 patients, 27.3% were not frail, 37.6% were prefrail, and 35.0% were frail at baseline. Frail patients were older, more likely to be women, and less likely to be from Asia. Baseline KCCQ-PLS and 6MWD (mean ± SD) among not frail, prefrail, and frail patients was 68.2 ± 23.2, 61.7 ± 22.6, and 48.4 ± 23.8 and 328.5 ± 117.1 m, 310.8 ± 98.9 m, and 250.7 ± 104.3 m (P < 0.01 for both). After accounting for baseline 6MWD, frailty status at baseline, but not KCCQ-PLS, was significantly associated with 6MWD at 24 weeks. By 24 weeks, 47.5% of patients had no change in frailty, 45.5% had become less frail, and 7.0% had become more frail. Treatment with vericiguat did not alter frailty status at 24 weeks.

Conclusions: Patient-reported frailty is modestly correlated with both the KCCQ-PLS and 6MWD but offers prognostic insight into 6MWD at 24 weeks. (Patient-reported Outcomes in Vericiguat-treated Patients With HFpEF [VITALITY-HFpEF]; NCT03547583).

Keywords: 6-minute walking distance; Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; patient-reported frailty.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Frailty*
  • Functional Status
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Quality of Life
  • Stroke Volume

Associated data