As the global population ages, bone-related diseases have increasingly become a major social problem threatening human health. Exosomes, as natural cell products, have been used to treat bone-related diseases due to their superior biocompatibility, biological barrier penetration, and therapeutic effects. Moreover, the modified exosomes exhibit strong bone-targeting capabilities that may improve efficacy and avoid systemic side effects, demonstrating promising translational potential. However, a review of bone-targeted exosomes is still lacking. Thus, the recently developed exosomes for bone-targeting applications in this review are focused. The biogenesis and bone-targeting regulatory functions of exosomes, the constructive strategies of modified exosomes to improve bone-targeting, and their therapeutic effects for bone-related diseases are introduced. By summarizing developments and challenges in bone-targeted exosomes, It is striven to shed light on the selection of exosome constructive strategies for different bone diseases and highlight their translational potential for future clinical orthopedics.
Keywords: bone regulation; bone-related diseases; bone-targeted strategies; engineered modification; exosomes.
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