Food and fruit waste valorisation for pectin recovery: Recent process technologies and future prospects

Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Apr 30:235:123929. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.123929. Epub 2023 Mar 6.


Pectin possesses a dual property of resistance and flexibility and thus has diverse commercial value which has generated research interest on this versatile biopolymer. Formulated products using pectin could be useful in food, pharma, foam, plasticiser and paper substitute industries. Pectin is structurally tailor-made for greater bioactivity and diverse applications. Sustainable biorefinery leaves greener footprints while producing high-value bioproducts like pectin. The essential oils and polyphenols obtained as byproducts from a pectin-based biorefinery are useful in cosmetics, toiletries and fragrance industries. Pectin can be extracted from organic sources following eco-friendly strategies, and the extraction techniques, structural alterations and the applications are continually being upgraded and standardized. Pectin has great applications in diverse areas, and its green synthesis is a welcome development. In future, growing industrial application of pectin is anticipated as research orients on biopolymers, biotechnologies and renewable source-based processes. As the world is gradually adopting greener strategies in sync with the global sustainable development goal, active involvement of policy makers and public participation are prime. Governance and policy framing are essential in the transition of the world economy towards circularity since green circular bioeconomy is ill-understood among the public in general and within the administrative circles in particular. Concerted efforts by researchers, investors, innovators, and policy and decision makers to integrate biorefinery technologies as loops within loop of biological structures and bioprocesses is suggested. The review focusses on generation of the different nature of food wastes including fruits and vegetables with cauterization of their components. It discusses the innovative extraction and biotransformation approaches for these waste conversions into value-added products at cost-effective and eco-friendly way. This article compiles numerous effective and efficient and green way pectin extraction techniques with their advantages with varying success in an integrated manner.

Keywords: Circular economy; Food waste; Pectin; Pretreatment; Sustainable development; Valorisation.

MeSH terms

  • Biotechnology
  • Fruit* / chemistry
  • Pectins* / analysis
  • Vegetables


  • Pectins