Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a significant impact on sickle cell disease (SCD) morbidity and mortality. Early identification of individuals at highest risk of developing CKD may allow therapeutic intervention to prevent worse outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among adults with SCD in Brazil. Participants in the REDS-III multicenter SCD cohort with more severe genotypes aged ≥ 18 years with at least two serum creatinine values were analyzed. The eGFR was calculated using the Jamaica Sickle Cell Cohort Study GFR equation. The eGFR categories were defined according to the K/DOQI. Participants with eGFR ≥ 90 were compared to those with those with eGFR < 90. Among the 870 participants, 647 (74.4%) had eGFR ≥ 90, 211 (24.3%) had eGFR 60 to 89, six (0.7%) had eGFR 30 to 59, and six (0.7%) had ESRD. Male sex (OR: 37.3; 95%CI: 22.4-65.1), higher age (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02-1.06), higher diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95%CI: 1.009-1.06), lower Hb (OR: 0.80; 95%CI: 0.68-0.93), and lower reticulocytes (OR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.89-0.99) levels were independently associated with eGFR < 90. There was a trend towards higher odds of death in participants with eGFR < 90 (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 0.95-3.32; p = 0.065). In turn, participants with eGFR < 60 had a 12.2 (95%CI: 2.1-96.9) times higher odds for death when compared to those with eGFR ≥ 60. In this study, eGFR < 90 was observed in one-quarter of adults. Older age, male sex, higher diastolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, and lower reticulocyte levels were associated with occurrence of eGFR < 90. Estimated GFR < 60 increased the risk of mortality.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Estimated glomerular filtration rate; Risk factor; Sickle cell anemia; Sickle cell nephropathy.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.